Fiber laser cutting process
Fiber laser cutting process
Firstly, vaporization cutting.
During the laser gasification cutting process, the surface temperature of the material rises to the boiling point temperature is so fast. That it avoids melting by heat conduction. So that part of the material vaporizes into vapor and some of the material is from the bottom of the slit to gas. Flow blows away. In this case, need a high laser power.
In order to prevent the material vapor from condensing on the wall.The thickness of the material must not greatly exceed the diameter of the laser beam.This processing is actually only in the small area of use of iron-based alloys.
This process cannot for materials such as wood and certain ceramics that are therefore less likely to recondense the material vapors. In addition, these materials usually have to reach thicker cuts. In laser gasification cutting, optimal beam focusing depends on the material thickness and beam quality.
Laser power and heat of vaporization have only a certain influence on the optimal focus position. In the case of a certain plate thickness, the maximum cutting speed is to the gasification temperature of the material. The laser power density is greater than 108 W/cm2 and depends on the material, cutting depth and beam focus position. In the case of a certain plate thickness, assuming sufficient laser power, the maximum cutting speed is the velocity of the gas jet.
In laser melting and cutting, the work piece is partially melted and the melted material is the air flow. Because the transfer of material occurs only in its liquid state, the process is laser melting cutting.
The laser beam with a high purity inert cutting gas to force the molten material away from the kerf.And the gas itself is not in the cutting. Laser melting cutting can achieve higher cutting speeds than gasification cutting. The energy for gasification is usually higher than the energy to melt the material. In laser melting and cutting, the laser beam is only partially absorb.
The maximum cutting speed increases with the increase of the laser power. And decreases almost inversely with the increase of the thickness of the sheet and the increase of the melting temperature of the material. In the case of a certain laser power, the limiting factor is the gas pressure at the kerf and the thermal conductivity of the material. Laser melting cutting can make non-oxidation cuts for iron materials and titanium metals. The laser power density that produces melting but not gasification is between 104 W/cm2 and 105 W/cm2 for steel materials.
Thirdly,oxidation melting cutting (laser flame cutting).
An inert gas is generally for melt cutting. If oxygen or other reactive gas is instead, the material is under the irradiation of a laser beam. And a fierce chemical reaction with oxygen generates another heat source to further heat the material, which is oxidative melt cutting.
Due to this effect, for the same thickness of structural steel, the cutting rate that is higher than that of melting cutting. On the other hand, this method may have worse cut quality than melt cutting.
In fact it produces a wider kerf, a noticeable roughness, an increasing heat-affecting zone and a worse edge quality. Laser flame cutting is not good when machining precision models and sharp corners (risk of burning sharp corners). Pulse mode lasers can be to limit thermal effects, and the power of the laser determines the cutting speed. In the case of a certain laser power, the limiting factor is the supply of oxygen and the thermal conductivity of the material.
Fifthly, control the fracture cutting.
For brittle materials that are easily by heat, high-speed, control cutting by laser beam heating is control fracture cutting. The main content of this cutting process is that the laser beam heats the small area of the brittle material. Causing a large thermal gradient and severe mechanical deformation in the area, resulting in cracks in the material. As long as a uniform heating gradient, the laser beam can guide the cracks in any direction.
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